Diving & ROV specialists
To know the aim, structure, and
conditions of utilization of this
website, click on the octopus.
This search engine allows finding
documents and addresses using
names and keywords.
Publications CCO Ltd
Diving & ROV specialists
Videos and animations
Procedures, historical diving and technical documents
Equipment to take into consideration
Diving doctors & clinics
Diving equipment manufacturers & suppliers
Underwater tools and their surface support equipment
Underwater navigation and visualization systems
Logistic supporting services
Ship chartering companies
Training establishments & Recruitment agencies
Banks, insurances, and medical assistance
Help us to make this website better
This website exists due to the efforts of some scientists, document
writers, engineers, divers, and client representatives. Please
remember that it is a fully independent platform that does not
depend on pressure groups, and whose purpose is only to provide
accurate and honest information free of charge. However, doing this
takes a considerable time, and every support is welcome to help us
to improve this project.
Fast means of donation have been neglected since the launching
one year ago, and some of you said they were missing. That is
corrected now, with this first link that allows making donations
easily (Note that 1$ = 36 THB).
Click on the
octopus to return to
the top of the page
Food for thought
The previous posts can be accessed by clicking on the buttons below.
Updated on the 10th of November 2023
Wave energy conversion
Floating and offshore solar farms
Offshore geothermal resources
Also, remember that you can be part of this project by providing
articles or information.
About nitrox fabrication
Invasive sea species
This rubric aims to provide elements allowing us
to analyze new potential markets and events that
may influence our professions in the future.
The previous posts can be accessed by clicking on the buttons below.
Hyperaric Oxygen Treatments
About mini & ultralight ROVs
About Azoth systems - O’Dive pro
Click on the covers above to see the descriptions of the publications
About Diver Monitoring Systems
About diver held SONARs
Diver’s bailout system design
Several companies have banned the use of smartphones and tablets
in dive and ROV control rooms due to isolated incidents of distraction.
These policies are based on emotional responses rather than
This discussion proves that contrary to what people imposing such
authoritarian rules think, smartphones and tablets can be powerful
tools for improving work procedures and safety. It also proves that
restrictions imposed following emotional events and anger are
This article is accessible through the button below
The "Basic rigging and lifting procedures handbook" has been
available since August. We remember that this document aims to
promote the essential principles for organizing basic lifting
procedures for various loads for diving and ROV teams for the
operations they may undertake during the construction projects
they are involved in. It is based on national and international
Our new document research series, "Index
for Document Research: Scientific Papers
and Books," presents a supplementary
research method to complement the
chronological lists and search engine
available on our website. This additional
document offers a subtopic organization of
the chronologically classified papers in our
Please note that an article that discusses a
standards and guidelines, such as ISO, EN,
ASME, ASTM, OSHA, and HSE standards,
and manufacturer recommendations.
It is composed of two parts:
The description of the lifting systems.
The management procedures,
elements to consider, and particular
procedures such as personnel
subject with implications for multiple related topics is classified in
each related sub-topic.
This additional classification method will gradually expand to other
primary topics in our database.
Note that the diving management study #13 is underway. It will
discuss the rules and tools developed to frame the work of the
scientists who study diving tables.
“Theoretical considerations on the ultimate depth that could be
reached by saturation human divers” is a document written by
Jacques H. Abraini, Hélène N. David, Nicolas Vallée, Jean-Jacques
Risso, and published in 2016.
Narcotic episodes have constituted, beyond
the high-pressure neurological syndrome,
the major limitation of deep diving.
The authors believed that it is of interest to
examine what could be the ultimate depth
that could be reached by saturation human
divers. Based on previous data and the
critical volume model of inert gas narcosis,
they suggest that the maximum depth for
saturation diving could be around 1,000 m.
“High Pressure Diving Nervous Syndrome”
is a study published in 2022 by Munire K.
Ozgok Kangal and Heather M. Murphy-
Lavoie. It reviews the evaluation and
management of the high-pressure
nervous syndrome (HPNS) and explains the
role of the interprofessional team in
managing patients with this condition.
This document can be considered a
complement of the study above
Many technical documents are published alongside scientific
papers, and our handbooks and studies. Some, such as, those about
mapping procedures using specific ROVs, could also be published in
the "Studies of ROV concepts" section. For this reason, we suggest
using our search engine to refine research.
Among the new documents we publish, note the following:
“From shallow sea to deep sea: research
progress in underwater image restoration”
is a study recently published by Wei Song,
Yaling Liu, Dongmei Huang, Bing Zhang,
Zhihao Shen, & Huifang Xu. It reviews
underwater image restoration technology,
bridging the gap between shallow-sea and
deep-sea image restoration fields through
“Recent progress on underwater soft
robots: adhesion, grabbing, actuating, and
sensing”, is a document written by Yeming
Zhang, Demin Kong, Yan Shi, Maolin Cai,
Qihui Yu, Shuping Li, Kai Wang, &
This paper provides a view of the
development of various tools, sensors, and
propulsors of underwater soft robots.
These papers are available with other publications in "Documents"
(see in the menu bar) or by clicking the cover pictures on the side.
"Notes on the Laurentic Salvage Operations
and the Prevention of Compressed Air
Illness" by Captain Damant is a book that
relates the recovery of Laurentic's gold
cargo in 1917 after a German mine sank
her. It is a fantastic testimony to the
techniques used during this period.
Captain Damant was a friend of John Scott
Haldane and was directly involved in the
study of the first decompression table.
Mini divers and ROV navigation systems
We have been informed by “Composite Beat Engels” that the two
models of helmets presented in May 2022 and intensively tested in
the nuclear industry and other unhealthy environments are now
internationally approved for sale. This provides me with the
opportunity to describe these helmets again and highlight the
advantages companies may have in working with a small
manufacturer. Thus, this is an opportunity to highlight the fact that
monosourcing of equipment is counterproductive and, in the long
term, dangerous for companies.
To recall, the two helmets previously presented in June 2022 utilize
the same shell. The difference is that one helmet is supplied by a
continuous flow system, and the other is equipped with a demand
valve regulator. They were initially studied for the needs of "Onet
Technologies CN", a company specializing in diving interventions in
nuclear power plants that wanted a helmet with a comparable
volume to the Divex AH4 and 5 they use, and that were modified due
to intermittent intrusion of water that was sometimes noticed in the
past, as indicated in the article by Patrick Lucon, "Diving in Nuclear
Power Plants," published in our previous edition and available in the
section "Food for thought" at the bottom of this home page. These
new helmets made by Beat Engel have integrated these
modifications and are both perfectly sealed.
About small and false helmet manufacturers
The DSL B-2CND is a helmet equipped
with a demand regulator, the Scubapro
A 700. It provides more internal space
than the well-known “DeepSea DSL B-2
Caribe”, and is equipped with a double
exhaust valve system that maintains it
at a slight positive pressure to avoid
The DSL B-2CNF is a continuous flow
helmet designed for interventions in
polluted waters and nuclear plants. It
is equipped with a large viewport and
an adjustable double exhaust valve
system that can also be activated by
pressing the dedicated button inside
the unit with the head.
It must be noted that these sealing refinements were previously in
place on the other helmets made by this manufacturer, notably the
"DSL B2 Caribe" that "Onet Technologies CN" also successfully used.
In addition to diving in nuclear pools where radiation contamination is
possible and thus requires a perfectly sealed helmet, the photo below
proves that these helmets can be used in the most extreme
conditions. They are all equipped with a removable ballast that can be
taken out to lighten the weight of the helmet when the divers have to
wait outside the water without removing their helmet due to a
polluted environment and a lengthy cleaning process.
DeepSea DSL B-2 Caribe
DeepSea DSL B-2 Caribe used in a wastewater treatment plant
Note that the removable ballast is also used to protect the various connections.
I need to clarify that “Diving and ROV Specialists.com” has no
financial interest in the company described. Thus, the support for
these products comes only from our thought that, for the good of
the profession, we need to have several sources of equipment that
contractors can choose from. In other words, the rules of the free
market are based on supply and demand, and when there is only
one supplier, this rule is broken, resulting in the only manufacturer
being in a monopolistic situation and imposing its prices and delivery
conditions. Regarding this point, we need to look at other industries
that have understood the advantage of having several suppliers and
thus diversified their sources. Competition pushes producers to
progress and propose products at competitive prices, which is not
the case if only one manufacturer exists. The simple reason is, why
should you make efforts in research if you are alone in the market,
and thus, all companies are obliged to pass by you to buy the
equipment they need? This is also true when the number of
competitors is limited to two or three, as they may arrange to share
the market. A monopolistic situation has been a reality in the diving
helmet market for two decades, with Kirby Morgan holding the
quasi-totality of the market despite some attempts by small
manufacturers to enter it. Of course, the problem does not arise
from the manufacturer being in such a dominant position. He is
simply doing his job of providing reliable products that generate the
most comfortable income possible for him, which is the purpose of a
commercial company. Thus, the fault lies with the commercial diving
industry and the conservatism that many of us have. We have to
understand that this behaviour, which many of us consider based on
common sense, goes against logical market rules and quality policies
that many companies today like to throw in our faces when we
request their services.
The real logicality should be to compare products and ensure that
multiple suppliers exist for each type of equipment. For this reason, I
remind you that this website displays a whole page with the
addresses of the following other helmet manufacturers (see in
Of course, some other manufacturers than those above may exist. If
that is the case, we will be happy to add them to the list. However, it
must be kept in mind that we support only real manufacturers and
not people performing copies of existing devices. We can see above
that, due to their function, the general design of helmets is similar.
However, each manufacturer has products with a particular look and
concept. Thus, they must be selected according to the client's needs
based on these criteria.
Opposite to that counterfeiters have understood they can generate
huge profits by imitating products from reputed manufacturers.
Regarding this point, I have to say that some counterfeit products
are so well done that only people who know the original perfectly can
detect them when looking at them. For example, in March 2022. Kirby
Morgan emitted a safety bulletin regarding a counterfeit of its
famous bandmask KMB 28. The photo below from this bulletin
shows that both the original and the counterfeit have an identical
look. Kirby Morgan says that the difference becomes obvious when
using them as the regulator of the copy is far to provide the same
performance and can be considered dangerous. Kirby Morgan
provides procedures to detect the copy in a safety bulletin published
in August 2022.
Click on the button below the list to open the page.
The genuine Kirby Morgan is on the right side. Do you see the difference?
We can question how some people made a copy that is an externally
perfect replica of the original. The answer is that in its bulletin, Kirby
Morgan indicates these people's company name (Haiyun) and
website address ( http://www.haiyundive.cn ). A visit to this website
shows that these people are "apparently" a company settled and
operating in China that sells other models of face masks and other
diving equipment. China is a country with substantial industrial
capabilities and a vast internal market where clients are not
automatically familiar with Kirby Morgan products and safety
bulletins. On their website, this copy of the KMB 28 band-mask is
called CDM-16. Another question we can ask is how long these
people will not be able to replicate the original regulator perfectly.
I have interrogated an authentic KMB reseller, Advance Marine in
Singapore, regarding the legal actions that have been taken by Kirby
Morgan. The fact that KMB has published these bulletins proves that
the company management considers a major threat the fact that
some people copy their products and usurp their reputation.
However, as with many organized illegal activities, it seems that
cutting off the head of the company created by these counterfeiters
may result in them starting again with a new company. Thus, the
problem is not simple, and the current relationships between the US
and the Chinese government does not help solving it.
On our side, we believe that even if some might have the temptation
to purchase such products, they should never do so. This is to avoid
violating market regulations and supporting dishonest individuals
who steal the names and intellectual property of others. Buying
such products encourages these people to continue, resulting in
authentic manufacturers losing potential clients and collapsing due
to a lack of resources, which is far from profitable for the
Furthermore, those who fail to consider the above ethical point
should keep in mind that by publishing safety bulletins in March
2022 and August 2022, Kirby Morgan has officially identified the
counterfeits. Therefore, equipment resellers cannot ignore that
these products exist, and those involved in selling them can be taken
to court as members of the counterfeiting chain. Additionally, users
of such products expose their company and themselves to the
Counterfeit helmets are not approved by certification bodies, and
therefore, their use is considered illegal and dangerous.
The legal authorities of the country may consider that employers
who use such helmets have intentionally endangered the lives of
their workers and take them to court for this reason. Note that
protecting the safety of workers is a key element of the
International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions.
In addition to the authorities, in case of an incident, families of
affected people can also take the employer to court with the
support of various labour organizations.
The insurance company may refuse to cover the accident, if any,
and any subsequent projects undertaken by the contractor. As
files of insurance companies are often shared, it will be difficult
to find another.
The contractor using such a product can be taken to court by the
client for similar reasons as the authorities. As many clients are
now members of organizations, the contractor runs the risk of
losing most of them.
Members of professional associations can be expelled from
these organizations if it is alleged that they have intentionally
used counterfeits. Also, their quality system can be considered
insufficient and not in line with the minimium requirement
members of an organization should apply.
Additionally, companies and individuals intentionally using
counterfeit products are legally considered a part of the
counterfeiting chain, resulting in severe penalties if caught.
To conclude the list above, there are more inconveniences to using
illegal copies of helmets than actual advantages. Those ready to
cross the threshold of legality should think twice.
Note that a lot of reputed Chinese manufacturers are listed in our
database, which should not be confused with the counterfeiters
described above, because they are based in the same country. In
fact, we have to consider them as indirect victims of such
Also, recent announcements from various professional and safety
organizations, and lists of scientific and technical paid documents
can be consulted on a specific page by clicking the button below.
Please note that the hyperlinks to the guidelines and information
notes indexed on this page are solely intended for informational
purposes, as "Diving and ROV Specialists.com" is not responsible for
creating any of the said documents.
“Diving & ROV Specialists.com” is totally independent and does not
plan to apply for any organization membership. Our vocation is to
provide diving and ROV teams with reliable information written by us
or by others.
We highlight information published by professional organizations as
we consider it a part of our duties. However, as explained in the
conclusion of the Diving management studies CCO Ltd #7 and #11,
any guideline published by any organization should be analyzed by
competent people who decide whether it can be adopted and utilized
by the company they work for.
In other words, it is your decision to consider the contents of each
document listed on this page as suitable or not for all aspects of
your diving and ROV operations.
Pollution of the sea by plastic garbages
Diving into nuclear power plants