Scientific papers 1600 - 1959
4 - Robert Boyle:       The Origin of forms and Qualities (according to the corpuscular       philosophy) illustrated by considerations and experiments. 10 - Antoine Lavoisier - Essays on the effects produced by various          processes on atmospheric air with a particular view to an         investigation of the constitution of the acids 13 - Triger: Mémoire sur un appareil à air comprime (1841)
In 1839, the French engineer Triger solved the many technical problems and was able to use compressed air successfully for sinking a shaft through a layer of quicksand to reach a bed of coal at Chalons in France. The whole account was published in a communication to the French “Académie of Sciences” in 1841. As Triger was increasing the pressure in his shaft, he accurately described the strange euphoria related to compressed air. He reported how his workers were trying to whistle under pressure and also explained a technique for relieving ear pain by swallowing saliva. Concerned by the wellbeing of his workers and the strange effects of pressure, he decided to expose himself at a 3 bar pressure to clarify the issue. He went to Paris, because at the time, dentists had started using compressed air chamber to operated patient under compressed air, using narcosis as a form of anaesthesia. Only there could he find a chamber rated to such a significant pressure. His first trial was a disappointment as he discovered that the dentist’s chamber had a poor design and the piping using leather gaskets was leaking so much that he could not exceed half bar. He convinced the dentist to accept some modifications and send a message to his Supervisor who immediately travelled to Paris to fix the installation. On the following trial, Triger described himself seating on a chair inside the chamber and reaching 1.5 bar when a sudden explosion occurred. It was later discovered that a porthole had broken. Triger survived the explosive decompression. A man came running to him and gave him back his hat that he had found in the court near-by. He concluded that such pressure exposures were harmless and had no significant effect on the man physiology.
14 - Pol & Watelle: Caisson disease and coal mining (1845) 15 - Leroy de Mericourt: Sur l’hygiène des pêcheurs d’éponges (1867) 16 - Leroy de Mericourt: Considerations on the health of sponge divers 18 -  Paul Bert: la pression barometrique (1878) 21 - E. Hugh Snell: Compressed air illness (1896) 27 - Haldane, Boycott, Damant: The prevention of compressed-air           illness (1908) The Haldane’s model is the foundation for the calculation of decompression tables. This model involves assumptions that are summarized below: 	1.	Diving requires compressed air breathing and causes    nitrogen  to dissolve in the diver's tissues. 	2.	Nitrogen is transported from the lungs to the tissue by blood perfusion. 	3.	Blood perfusion is described by a series of “compartments” with exponential time responses. 	4.	The critical issue is the amount of nitrogen stored in the tissues prior to the ascent. 	5.	The primary insult is the volume of the gas phase formed during the ascent. 	6.	Limb bends and neurological symptoms are not differentiated and are considered as different levels of severity of a same problem. 	7.	The sites for bubble formation are the tissue or the venous side of the blood circulation but no tissue is specifically identified and all the "compartments" are considered during the ascent. 	8.	The decompression strategy consists in managing the amount of gas dissolved in each compartment to control a gas phase formation and avoid DCI during the ascent. 	9.	The ascent criteria is a linear function of the ambient pressure. These assumptions are the basis of present table calculations although a large variety exists in the gas exchange models or in the criteria used to control bubbles formation. These models work on tissue gas load. Their logic is to rapidly ascent to a stop close to the surface to create an off-gassing gradient. 28 - Leonar Hill: Caisson sickness, and physiology of work in           compressed air. 36 - J. V. Dwyer: Calculation of air decompression tables – project         NS185-005 38 - US Navy Reseach report 1 -59: Effects of exposing men to         compressed air and helium-oxygen mixtures for 12 hrs at         pressures of 2 - 2.6 atmospheres.           Authors: G. J. Dupfner &  h. h. Snider 8 - Oeuvres de Marriotte Next page Next page 33 - Max Kleiber: Body size and metabolic rate 9 - Joseph Priestley:        Experiments & observations on different kinds of air 11 - Experiments on the quantity of gases absorbed by water, at         different temperatures, and under different pressures. 19 -  Paul Bert: Barometric pressure (1878) 23 - James Lorrain Smith - The pathological effects due to increase of          oxygen tension in the air breathed 31 - Oxygen Poisoning: The effects of high oxygen pressures upon         the metabolism of liver, kidney, lung, and muscle tissues 32 - F. Dickens - The toxic effects of oxygen on brain metabolism and        on tissue enzymes 1 - Robert Boyle:       New experiments physico-mechanicall touching The spring of the     air and its effects. (made for the most part , in a new pneunamical      engine) - 1660 2 - Robert Boyle: The Septical Chymist - 1661 3 - Robert Boyle: Experiments and considerations touching colours 5 - Robert Boyle: New pneumatical experiments about respiration 6 - Isaac Newton - Philosophical transactions - Article #80 / Feb 1671 7 - Robert Boyle - A discovery of the admirable rarefaction of air 12 - John Dalton - Experimental essays - on the constitution of mixed         gas 17 - Andrew H. Smith: Caisson disease (Brooklin bridge) 20 - John Scott Haldane - The action of carbonic acide on man 22 - John Scott Hadane, & J. Lorrain smith - The oxygen tension of          arterial blood 24 - Joseph Barcroft & John Scott Haldane - Method of estimating the        oxygen and carbonic acid in small quantities of blood 25 - Leonard Hill & M. Greenwood - The influence of increased         barometric pressure in man - the possibility of oxygen bubbles         being set free in the body 26 - A. Osborne: The Haldane-Smith method of estimating the oxygen       tension of the arterial blood 29 - John Scott Hadane: Organism and environment as illustrated by         the physiology of breathing 30 - John Scott Hadane &  J. G. Priestley: Respiration 39 - M de G Cribble: A comparison of the high altitude and high         pressure syndromes of decompression illness 37 - Calculation of air saturation decompression tables – project         NS185-005          Author: Robert D. Workman
Click on the octopus to return to the top of the page
Back to the menu 34 - Sequential Analysis 35 - An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications