Scientific papers 2021
The documents are classified chronologically.
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Roxane Monnoyer, Kjersti Haugum, Jacky Lautridou,
Arnar Flatberg, Astrid Hjelde, and Ingrid Eftedal.
IDuring commercial saturation diving, divers live and work
under hyperbaric and hyperoxic conditions. The myriads
of bacteria that live in and on the human body must
adjust to the resultant hyperbaric stress. In this study, the
authors examined the shifts in bacterial content in the oral
cavity of saturation divers, using a metagenomic
approach to determine the diversity in the composition of
bacterial phyla and genera in saliva from 23 male divers
before, during, and immediately after four weeks of
commercial heliox saturation diving to a working depth of
circa 200 m
Richard V. Lundell, Laura Tuominen,Tommi Ojanen, Kai
Parkkola, & Anne Räisänen-Sokolowski
Technical diving is very popular in Finland throughout the
despite diving conditions being challenging, especially
due to arctic water and poor visibility. Coldwater,
immersion, submersion, hyperoxia, as well as
psychological and physiological stress, all have an effect
on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). To evaluate
divers’ ANS responses, short-term (5 min) heart rate
variability (HRV) during dives in 2–4 degrees C water was
measured. HRV resting values were evaluated from
separate measurements before and after the dives.
Twenty-six experienced closed circuit rebreather (CCR)
divers performed an identical 45-meter decompression
dive with a non-physical task requiring concentration at
the bottom depth.
Matteo Paganini, Giulia Mormando, Sandro Savino,
Giacomo Garetto, Giulia Tiozzo, Enrico M. Camporesi,
Fabrizio Fabris, and Gerardo Bosco
Hyperbaric chambers and underwater environments are
challenging and at risk of serious accidents. Personnel
aiming to assist patients and subjects should be
appropriately trained, and several courses have been
established all over the world. In healthcare, simulation is
an effective learning technique. However, there have
been few peer-reviewed articles published in the medical
literature describing its use in diving and hyperbaric
Kiyotaka Kohshi, Petar J. Denoble, Hideki Tamaki,
Yoshitaka Morimatsu, Tatsuya Ishitake, and
Nitrogen (N 2 ) accumulation in the blood and tissues can
occur due to breath-hold (BH) diving. Post-dive venous
gas emboli have been documented in commercial BH
divers (Ama) after repetitive dives with short surface
intervals. Hence, BH diving can theoretically cause
decompression illness (DCI). “Taravana,” the diving
syndrome described in Polynesian pearl divers by Cross in
the 1960s, is likely DCI. It manifests mainly with cerebral
involvements, especially stroke-like brain attacks with the
spinal cord spared. Neuroradiological studies on Ama
divers showed symptomatic and asymptomatic
ischemic lesions in the cerebral cortex, subcortex, basal
ganglia, brainstem, and cerebellum. These lesions localized
in the external watershed areas and deep perforating
arteries are compatible with cerebral arterial gas embolism.
Thomas Kjeld, Anders Brenøe Isbrand, Katrine Linnet, Bo
Zerahn, Jens Højberg, Egon Godthaab Hansen, Lars
Christian Gormsen, Jacob Bejder, Thomas Krag, John
Vissing, Hans Erik Bøtker, and Henrik Christian Arendrup.
The cardiac electrical conduction system is very sensitive to
hypoglycemia and hypoxia, and the consequence may be
brady-arrythmias. Weddellseals endure brady-arrythmias
during their dives when desaturating to 3.2 kPa and elite
breath-hold-divers (BHD), who share metabolic and
cardiovascular adaptions, including bradycardia with
diving mammals, endure similar desaturation during
The authors hypothesized that hypoxia causes brady-
arrythmias during maximum apnea in elite BHD. Hence,
this study aimed to define the arterial blood glucose (Glu),
peripheral saturation (SAT), heart rhythm (HR), and mean
arterial blood pressure (MAP) of elite
BHD during maximum apneas.
Xiao-Chen Bao, Yi-Qun Fang, Tao Yang, Yong-jun Sun, Jun
Ma, Ji Xu, Nan Wang, Fang-Fang Wang
The authors of this paper tested the changes in pulmonary
function of divers after 80m, 100m, and 120m heliox dive.
They found that single deep heliox diving can cause
temporary expiratory and minor airway dysfunction,
which can be recovered 24h after diving. This result
increases our knowledge of the impact of the diving
environment on the body, and corresponding preventive
measures should be taken in this regard.
Christian Pristipino, Peter Germonpré, Danilo Toni, Horst
Sievert, Bernhard Meier, Fabrizio D’Ascenzo, Sergio Berti,
Eustaquio Maria Onorato, Francesco Bedogni, Jean-Louis
Mas, Paolo Scacciatella, David Hildick-Smith, Fiorenzo
Gaita, Paul A. Kyrle, John Thomson, Genevieve
Derumeaux, Dirk Sibbing, Massimo Chessa, Marius
Hornung, Jose Zamorano, Dariusz Dudek
This interdisciplinary paper, prepared with the involvement
of eight European scientific societies, reviews the available
evidence and proposes a rationale for decision making for
other Patent Foramen Ovale related clinical conditions.
Shumaila Mumtaz, Shaukat Ali, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir,
Syed Akif Raza Kazmi, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir,
Tafail Akbar Mughal, Samaira Mumtaz,
Muhammad Summer, Muhammad Adeel Farooq
This purely medical document has been selected because
it discusses using vitamin C as an antioxidant to combat
oxidative stress triggered by reactive oxygen species. As
explained in our handbooks, reactive oxygen species are
necessary for life. However, they can be involved in cell
destruction when produced in excess, which happens
when the body is confronted with abnormal situations,
such as breathing oxygen at elevated Partial pressure.
Edward P. Manning, Abhay B. Ramachandra, Jonas C.
Schupp, Cristina Cavinato, Micha Sam Brickman Raredon,
Thomas Bärnthaler , Carlos Cosme Jr., Inderjit Singh,
George Tellides, Naftali Kaminski, and Jay D. Humphrey
Hypoxia adversely affects the pulmonary circulation of
mammals, including vasoconstriction leading to elevated
pulmonary arterial pressures.
The authors established a multi-disciplinary workflow to
understand better transcriptional, microstructural, and
functional changes of the pulmonary artery in response to
sustained hypoxia and how these changes inter-relate.
Amit Chopra, Ali Hani Al-Tarbsheh , Nidhi J. Shah, Hamid
Yaqoob, Kurt Hu, Paul J. Feustel g, Ronaldo Ortiz-Pacheco,
Kinner M. Patel, Jozef Oweis, Natalya Kozlova, Spyridon
Zouridis, Sahar Ahmad, Oleg Epelbaum, Woon H. Chong,
John T. Huggins, Biplab K. Saha i, Edward Conuel, Hau
Chieng, Jeannette Mullins, Divyansh Bajaj, Boris Shkolnik,
Rachel Vancavage, Nagendra Madisi, Marc A. Judson
The authors of this study compared mechanically
ventilated patients who developed a pneumothorax with
those who did not to determine the incidence, clinical
features, and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-
19 infection who developed pneumothorax.