In this document David E. Yount (US navy at Hawaii)
explains the advantages of his Variable Permeability Model
(VPM ) and says the following to introduce it:
With the development of a detailed mathematical model
describing bubble formation in aqueous media, it is now
possible to quantify various degrees of nucleation and
place any given dive profile at a more realistic position on
the nucleation scale. The methods of Haldane and of Hills
may then be regarded as limiting special cases of a more.
general decompression theory that should someday be
applicable to the whole range of hyperbaric and
The excat date of publication of this document is not
This document was written by Nishi and Lauckner.
It describes the Kidd-Stubbs decompression model and its
adaptation to the DCIEM 1983.
This document was published for a workshop held in
Tokyo on the 11 & 12 September of 1986.
Jean Pierre IMBERT is a specialist of equations and
decompression modeling who worked for COMEX as a
research engineer on deep heliox and hydreliox programs
such as hydra 10 in 1992, which is still, the deepest depth
reached in a chamber (701 metres).
He is the main designer of the air, gas, and saturation
tables MT92, which are still in force under the name MT
2019 (for this reason, we call this set MT 92-2019). He is
also the main author of the saturation procedures
NORMAM-15. He continues to run several research
programs on decompression models, High-Pressure
Nervous Syndrome (HPNS), and oxidative stress.
Scientific papers 1980 - 1989
This document highlights the importance of a database in
the conception of new decompression models.
year of publication: 1988
This paper aims to comprehensively search and explain
the solubility of gases, liquids, and solids in liquids.
This document explains the development of the Variable
Permeability Model (VPM ) by using transparent gelatin
samples subjected to various pressure schedules. The
authors explain that this technique is well suited for such a
study as it yields a definite number of bubbles that are can
be counted and measured.
In this paper, David E. Yount explains the evolution of a
nucleus from one equilibrium state to another and
investigates the statistical process by which the equilibrium
size distribution of an entire population of nuclei may be
generated or regenerated.
Date of publication: March 1982
This document describes the investigations and tests made
for programming wrist-worn underwater decompression
computers used by US Navy divers.
Date of publication: 1983
Edward Deforest Thalmann (03/04/45 – 24/07/04) was
an American hyperbaric doctor of the US Navy.
He worked on the previous version of the US Navy tables
and developed Algorithms for diving computers and
compute dive tables.
This document describes the procedure for the calculation
of multilevel dives using the repetitive groups of the US
Date of publication: September 1983
Note that multilevel dive tables are present in the DCIEM
and Comex tables.
The pulmonary surfactant is a mixture of lipids and
proteins secreted by the epithelial cells into the alveolar
space. Its primary function is to reduce the surface tension
at the air/liquid interface in the lung.
This study aims to identify the relationship between
hydrophobicity and respiratory distress syndrome.
(Hydrophobe = that repels water)
Note that this document is more a medical document
than a document related to diving. However, it allows us
to understand the importance of the surfactant in
respiration and thus gas exchanges in the lungs.
This document is the continuation of the document #6:
“Testing of decompression algorithms for the use in the US
Navy underwater decompression computer”.
Date of publication: January 1984
As indicated in the title, this document discusses the
thermal limits according to the depth and the duration of
the dive and the parts of the body exposed.
Date of publication:1984
This document is the complement of papers #1. #2, #4
Date of publication: May 1984
This report describes some researches made by doctor
Thalman regarding heliox diving. The descriptions of cases
of DCS and treatment results are indicated in the
document with the details of the computer algorithm,
decompression schedules tested, and the final
The pertinence of the final decompression model to
HeO2 bounce and saturation diving is also discussed.
We do not use closed-circuit scuba for commercial diving.
However, this study refers to oxygen toxicity.
This document seems to have been written by Dr. Frank K.
Butler, an eminent member of the US Tactical Combat
Casualty Care, Joint Trauma System, and the
decompression sickness and arterial gas embolism
treatment committee for the Undersea and Hyperbaric
Date of publication: March 1986
This document is another description of the Variable
Permeability Model also discussed in documents #1. #2,
#4, and #11.
This document was published in 1986
This report from the British journal of industrial medicine
describes investigations on lung function and the
response to exercise with seven diver/welders who took
part in a test saturation dive to 300 m for an average
duration of 12 days with nine days decompression.
Year of publication: 1987
Francis, Pezeshkpour, & Dutka:
A continuous air infusion (1.0 ml -min-') was delivered via
a fine aortic cannula into the arterial circulation of 7
anesthetized dogs until somatosensory evoked potentials
could elicit no spinal cord function. The animals were
then rapidly perfusion-fixed and the spinal cords removed
for histological examination.
Year of publication: 1989
This report describes the examination of the thermal
balance, physical performance, and cognitive function of
seven U.S. Navy divers who each performed two 7-hour
cold exposures while wearing a dry suit with M-400
Thinsulate insulation for thermal protection.
Date of publication: March 1989
This study, published in 1981, has been used by other
scientists in further studies and manuals. It investigates
noise levels with helmets and face-masks when using tools
such as HP water blasters. Note that apart from the KMB
17, the helmets and masks taken as reference are no more
produced. However, similar models are still in sold.
The documents are classified chronologically from 1980 to 1989
Click on their descriptions to open and download them.
Author: Akira Ishiyama
The gas composition of intravascular bubbles produced by
decompression was investigated in rabbits using gas
chromatography. The animals were exposed to 8 ATA for
30 min. All samples of bubbles were taken from the
animals under a 0.2 ATA pressure gradient so that no air
could enter the sampling system from the outside.
The percentage of carbon dioxide in the bubbles tended
to decrease at first and then increased with post-
decompression time. On the other hand, the percentage
of oxygen tended to change in the opposite manner.
Decompression sickness has in the past been defined as
an overt illness that may appear in a human being while
diving or following a reduction in environmental pressure
sufficient to cause bubble formation and/or growth
from the gases dissolved in the tissues. Other terms have
been legitimized by use to have an equivalent meaning,
despite the opinions of experts that it would be more
desirable either to not use such terms at all or else to use
them only in relation to a particular type of decompression
sickness: such terms include caisson disease, compressed
air illness, and the bends.
Authors: Paul K Weathersby & Blaine Hart
Several sets of equal risk air decompression tables were
calculated using a new methodology. Empirical
decompression risk models were used to predict the
probability of decompression sickness (DCS) for a given
pressure exposure. These probabilistic models, earlier
shown to have e considerable ability to separate tabulated
experimental air dives according to DCS risk, were used to
choose decompression schedules with an acceptable risk.
Authors: O. Hyldegaard, & J. Madsen
The use of heliox breathing during recompression in
serious cases of decompression sickness after air dives has
been recommended by James. The beneficial effect of
heliox breathing on N, bubbles in a lipid tissue such as the
white substance of the spinal cord was ascribed by Hills
and James to an outward flux of N; from bubbles
exceeding the inward flux of He, whether the exchange
ofgasses in the tissue is limited by perfusion or diffusion.
Doctor Alfred Buhlman (1923-1994) was a prolific
scientist from Switzerland well known for his sport diving
decompression algorithms, such as the ZHL-16 model still
used in many diving computers. However, he also
developed decompression models for commercial and
This document, published in May 1984, describes the
Authors: Andrea Harabin, D Homer, Paul K Weathersby,
and E T Flynn
This report reviewed the model which gave rise to the
UPTD. Included a summary of vital capacity data,
performed a summary of available vital capacity data, and
performed the model analysis.
The conclusions of the authors are similar to those of
Note that this document is not ideally copied and is
challenging to read for this reason.
Predictive studies V was a US Navy research program on
oxygen tolerance investigated by the Institute For
Environmental Medicine staff. Such studies have led to
the requirement to search beyond pulmonary toxicity and
central nervous system convulsions and have resulted in
currently used procedures.
Author: R.W. Hamilton
The “Repex method” is an evolution of the UPTD concept
that allows doses to be calculated or tabulated the same
way using the same equation but calls the single dose
unit, “OTU or Oxygen Tolerance Unit”. This system was
developed as a means of dealing with daily hyperoxic
exposures over a mission duration of several days or
longer, and was adopted later by NOAA
Authors: Brumon Kiernikowicz & Stefan Teresinky
This paper presents a case of pulmonary barotrauma in a
scuba diver. Swallowing water and respiratory arrest
during the ascent caused the trauma.
Symptoms from the respiratory system (including the
Behnke's symptom) appeared several minutes after the
completion of the dive and were not severe.
However, symptoms from the peripheral nervous system,
which appeared later, increased rapidly until the seizure
episode and loss of consciousness.
This publication summarizes a workshop organized by the
European Undersea Biomedical Society and the
Norwegian Petroleum Directorate in November 1983. It is
no longer edited, and for this reason, and because the
topics discussed are essential, we have decided to publish
it. It is divided into four sections, the first three of which are
introduced by keynote papers, followed by an individual
discussion on each article, and concluded with a general
discussion. The fourth session is a general discussion of the
This workshop, carried out at the Undersea and
Hyperbaric Medical Society headquarters on the 13 &14
February 1987, was part of a broad program of technical
grants, contracts, and seminars to provide information for
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) Undersea Research Program and the U.S.
Department of Commerce (NURP) activities. Based on this
aim, it grouped 35 experts regarding diving
decompression procedures to address how to move
tables forward through the various developmental and
This document contains only the consensus issued at the
end of the workshop
Author: Peter O. Edel
This document , published in 1980, discusses 336 depth-
time combinations of air decompression tables selected
from the U.S. Navy and British schedules that were
individually analyzed by a computer. In addition to 97
schedules tested by the C Experimental Diving Unit in
the development of Mimed Gas Scuba tables were
analyzed to compare the computer analysis with
manned test data.
These proceedings contain seven invited papers which
were presented during a special session on coldwater
diving at the American Academy of Underwater
Sciences' Coldwater Diving for Science - 1987
Symposium, October 29 to November 1, 1987 at the
University of Washington, Seattle.
IB.G. D'Aoust, R. White, H, Swanson, R. Dunford
This paper, published in 1989, discusses the advantages
associated with isobaric experiments involving either
transient or steady-state counter-diffusion. The authors
investigated the potential advantages and/or hazards
associated with sequentially breathing of inert gas/oxygen
mixtures using helium and nitrogen as the inert gases.
Authors: P Naquet, C. Lemaitre, J. C. Rostain
The data presented in this paper are based on 20
experimental dives, made either at Comex in Marseille or at
the French naval station in Toulon. The gas mixture was
helium-oxygen and helium-nitrogen-oxygen. Only the
experimental dives in which subjects reached or went
below 300m are taken into account. These experiments
have shown that the intensity and type of symptoms vary
according to the experimental conditions and the tested
subjects, and they have made it possible to establish
several general rules.
This document analyzes the scientific, regulatory,
economic, legal, and ethical considerations involved in
alternative technologies in biomedical and behavioral
research,toxicity testing, and education. Included is a
detailed examination of the USA's institutional regulation
of animal use, and a review of developments in 10 other
Author: Peter Edel
This study attempts to define the state-of-the-art for the use
of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures for diving operations by
compiling information related to past and current research
efforts in the USA and other countries. This information
was used to indicate possible areas of application for this
mixture under appropriate conditions and to define areas
in which hydrogen-oxygen mixtures could offer
physiological advantages not possible with currently used
Authors: Z. Torok
Historically, physiological diving research was started in
response to the unacceptable incidence of decompression
sickness in early construction work where diving was
essential. Significant improvements have been made
regarding this aspect of diving.
In a somewhat analogous process, compression profiles
have been designed to reduce the incidence of high-
pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS). This paper focuses on
this aspect of the dive.
Publisher: American academy of underwater sciences)
This workshop was partly sponsored by the (US) National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
Department of Commerce, through the Office of
Undersea Research, and in part by the Diving Equipment
Manufacturers Association (DEMA), and in part by the
American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS).
The papers and discussions reflect some differences of
opinion about the options available to the diver when
ascending from a dive. The message from these experts is,
however, that there is a risk associated with ascending to
the surface following a dive that can be minimized by
exercing control to make stops and with ascent rates not
over 60 feet per minute.
Authors: Q. S. Lillo, & M. E. MacCallum
This investigation was performed to determine whether
inert gas sequencing at depth would affect
decompression outcomes in rats via the phenomenon of
Rats were subjected to simulated dives using air and mixes
of 79% Helium/21% oxygen or 79% Argon/21% oxygen
in depths from 125 to 175 feet
This document, presented at the UMS workshop on
validation of decompression schedules in Bethesda,
Maryland, USA, in February 1987, explains the process
used to design the MT92 decompression tables that are
still among the safest decompression procedures currently
used even though they were published 30 years ago.
This efficient process is still current and has been
reproduced by other scientific teams.
This is the complete version of the document above that,
in addition to the final consensus, provides the
proceedings of the UHMS workshop held on February 13-
14, 1987, in Bethesda, MD, USA, and 25 presentations
made by some of the participants in support of and
introduction to the workshop.
Note that this document is essential for the
comprehension on how a diving table is designed.