Offshore systems 2000 - 2015
This paper provides an overview of various support
options available for wind turbines like gravity base
structure, monopiles, suction caissons, tripod/tetrapod
with caissons, floating platform, and jacket structure. For
all available options, the current status of use and
development for all available options, future need for
research, advantages, and disadvantages as discussed.
Also, a comparison of all foundation systems is made to
choose one according to site conditions.
The EPRI North American Tidal In-Stream Energy
Conversion (TISEC) Power Project demonstrates the
feasibility of tidal current power to provide efficient,
reliable, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective
electrical energy and create a push towards the
development of a sustainable commercial market for this
technology. This project is being conducted by a team
consisting of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI),
EPRIsolutions, a subsidiary of EPRI, Virginia Tech, the
University of Washington, Mirko Previsic (private
consultant), Devine Tarbell and Associates (TDA), and the
Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy
Laboratory (NREL), herein referred to as “the Project
Although not yet widely used, tidal power has the
potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more
predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among
sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally
suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of
sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities,
thus constricting its total availability. However, many
recent technological developments and improvements,
both in design (e.g., dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons)
and turbine technology (e.g., new axial turbines, cross-
flow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal
power may be much higher than previously assumed and
that economic and environmental costs may be brought
down to competitive levels.
The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an
intergovernmental organization that supports countries in
their transition to a sustainable energy future and serves
the principal platform for international co-operation, a
centre of excellence, and a repository of renewable
energy policy, technology, resource, and financial
IRENA promotes the widespread adoption and
sustainable use of all forms of renewable energy,
including bioenergy, geothermal, hydropower, ocean,
solar, and wind energy.
The documents are classified chronologically from 2000 to 2015.
Click on their descriptions to open and download them.
Authors: Kimberlie Staheli, David Bennett, Hugh W.
O'Donnell, and Timothy J. Hurley.
This document was published by the US army corps of
In the early 1970's a new process was introduced to install
pipelines by use of horizontal directional drilling (HDD)
techniques. The method has steadily grown to achieve
worldwide acceptance. Today pipeline installations
increasingly rely upon HDD technology as the primary
method for crossings of watercourses, wetlands, utility
corridors, roads, railroads, shorelines, environmental areas,
and urban areas.